iPhones back up to iCloud by default. However this sync only occurs when certain conditions are met (charging, on Wifi connection, and not running certain other processes) and when you have enough available iCloud storage. Consequently, customers often tell us they did not realize that their last iPhone backup occurred quite long ago. Any photos taken or contacts added since then will not be backed up to iCloud, but may be able to be recovered from the iPhone’s physical storage.
Be Wary of Data Recovery Software
Be careful with any software you may download to try to recover files on your own. iOS devices have complex encryption and any non-professional solutions — software trying to recover deleted files, for instance — could cause further problems with your iPhone’s storage drive.